Cycles

Mathematical Marvels of Foraminifera

Abstract Foraminifera are a family of marine unicellular eukaryotes whose fossils can be found throughout the world, from the deepest crevices of the ocean to the highest peaks of the Egyptian Pyramids. In this paper, we explore the mathematical models describing the optimization of common adaptations in foraminifera. Beginning with

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Deciphering Daphnia Dynamics: A Mathematical Odyssey into Aquatic Ecosystems

Abstract Amongst all the chaos found in aquatic ecosystems, Daphnia emerges as a small yet pivotal player, embodying the complexity and adaptability of life. This study presents a mathematical journey into Daphnia populations, revealing the sophisticated interplay between their unique reproductive strategies, survival tactics, and trophic interactions. Cyclical parthenogenesis, a

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Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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Mathematical Models of Molluscan Shell Patterns and Morphology

Mollusk shells’ mesmerizing diversity of forms stems from their variations in shape, features and patterns. While these forms are highly complex and diverse, research has aimed to establish an overarching model that explains the formation of these shell characteristics. This essay explores the mathematical models that capture these natural forms…

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Mathematical Modelling in Lactation: An analysis of hormonal regulation and complex lactation mechanisms

 Lactation is a unique natural mechanism shared amongst mammalian species that serves the primary purpose of providing offspring with the vital nutrition and immune support necessary in the early stages of fetal development.  The process of lactation has been extensively researched and has led to the application of mathematical principles…

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A Mathematical Representation of Brain Activity During Sleep

While an organism may seem inactive and static while sleeping, its brain displays a host of unique electrical brain activity. When these voltage fluctuations are graphically represented as waves, it illustrates how the brain processes and consolidates information between its neurons. Delta waves, theta waves, and sleep spindles are each…

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Feedback Loops and Circadian Rhythms in Parturition and Hatching

Birthing is the process that keeps animals involved within evolution. Nature encourages animals to reproduce and to allow their offspring to prolong the life of their species. These intricate processes of parturition and hatching are based on mathematical concepts such as feedback loops, where stimulus generates stimulus, and circadian rhythms.…

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The Mechanics and Rates of Organic Matter Decomposition

Despite their differences, living organisms find common ground when their time comes to an end. While life activities cease, the spirit of the afterlife continues in the form of decay – a critical mechanism by which an ecosystem’s nutrients and energy resources are recycled. Within nature’s ecosystems, the important task…

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Evolution of Mammary Glands and the Biomechanics of Mammalian Lactation

Lactation constitutes an important aspect of mammalian physiology and reproduction and is a key trait that defines mammals. The evolution of lactation is a story of great controversy, however, and the main theories behind the apparition of mammary glands will be discussed in the following paragraphs. In addition, the origin…

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