Mineralization

Unveiling the Chemistry of Radiolaria: Exploring Elemental Insights and Environmental Significance

– ABSTRACT – The Radiolarian species are a diverse group of marine microorganisms. They are known for their intricate and multi-functional silica skeletons. Due to rough oceanic conditions, the formation of a hard silica shell through biomineralization allows them to maintain their shape. The dissolution of their siliceous skeletons at

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Coral Polyps and the Chemical Symphony of Survival

While coral polyps have been extensively studied across various scientific perspectives, this paper will specifically explore them from a chemical standpoint. The coral polyp’s biomineralization process is investigated, highlighting its critical role in creating a suitable habitat. The chemical reaction between bicarbonate and calcium produces aragonite crystals which form the…

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The Physics of Coral Polyps

Coral polyps have been studied from many scientific standpoints, but this paper will examine coral polyps from a physical standpoint. To begin, polyps were analyzed under the lens of kinetics, relating the specific movement of polyps to the benefits of this movement. Through their natural ability to manipulate water flow…

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Nature’s Nanomagnets: A Chemical Perspective on Magnetotactic Bacteria

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are complex organisms that have evolved a multitude of internal chemical processes to survive their harsh environments. This paper discusses the details of important biological molecules, metabolic systems, and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the vital functions of MTB. Notably, biomineralization is a chemical, multi-step process that…

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A Physical Analysis of Magnetotactic Bacteria: Nature’s Microscopic Compass as a Solution to a Motile Biotope

Figure 1: Magnetotactic Bacteria (Perduca, 2016). Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are unique aquatic microaerophiles that can align and move in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field. In this paper, the basic physical properties of magnetosomes, some mechanisms, such as magnetotaxis, and phototaxis, involved in the MTB’s motion, and the role…

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Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

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Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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The Mechanics of Antler Bone: A Weapon for Courtship

An organism’s evolutionary fitness is determined by its ability to pass on its genes to its offspring. Males of some species make use of their courting and fighting abilities to gain access to mates, thus passing on genetic material. When it comes to Cervidae, or the family of ruminant mammals,…

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The Hormone-Dependent Regenerative Basis of Antlers

Antlers are unique architectures. They are shed and rebuilt at yearly intervals, growing from bony pedicles in early spring to full-fledged structures cast in late March. The antler growth cycle—known as antlerogenesis—is a process controlled by the fluctuating interactions of myriad hormones, mainly testosterone. The growth rate is among the…

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Biomineralization in Mollusks and Brachiopods

The beauty of shells hides an elaborate interrelationship of structures that provides a protective layer against environmental and predatorial threats. The constant need to defend their soft body has driven mollusks to develop complex shell structures that maximize their chances of survival. This essay reviews the understanding of the process of…

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Jaws: Terrific yet Terrifying

Jaws are an amazing system as they can contribute to many aspects of life such as eating, defence, locomotion, etc. Each species has specific needs and thus each set of jaws tends to be adapted to fit these demands. In the animal kingdom, some jaws show unique characteristics, which not…

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