Anatomy and Biological Systems

The Physical Adaptations Underlying the Tardigrade’s Resistance to Extreme Environmental Conditions 

Although tardigrades were discovered in the late 18th century, they have continued to captivate scientists due to their outstanding resistance to environmental conditions that are lethal to most organisms and that is necessary given their ecological distribution across various environments. Explanations as to the mechanisms underlying this superior resistance have…

Read More »

Underwater Chemists; Discussion of Design Solutions in Tintinnid Ciliates

In this essay we explore tintinnids’ intricate design solutions through the lens of chemical processes and pathways, emphasizing the vital role chemistry plays in their survival. These ciliates employ complex chemical processes that regulate digestion, reproduction, self-protection, and swimming mechanisms. We explore the cell and life cycle of tintinnids, their…

Read More »

The Physics of Coral Polyps

Coral polyps have been studied from many scientific standpoints, but this paper will examine coral polyps from a physical standpoint. To begin, polyps were analyzed under the lens of kinetics, relating the specific movement of polyps to the benefits of this movement. Through their natural ability to manipulate water flow…

Read More »

Magnetic Marvels: A Mathematical Exploration of Magnetotactic Bacteria

Order can be found within the seemingly complex, and perhaps even disordered, processes and shapes that constitute magnetotactic bacteria (MTB). This order can be explained by the concepts of mathematics. First and foremost, the crystalline structures within the magnetosomes of MTB can be modelled mathematically. Magnetite and greigite crystals consist…

Read More »

Nature’s Nanomagnets: A Chemical Perspective on Magnetotactic Bacteria

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are complex organisms that have evolved a multitude of internal chemical processes to survive their harsh environments. This paper discusses the details of important biological molecules, metabolic systems, and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the vital functions of MTB. Notably, biomineralization is a chemical, multi-step process that…

Read More »

A Physical Analysis of Magnetotactic Bacteria: Nature’s Microscopic Compass as a Solution to a Motile Biotope

Figure 1: Magnetotactic Bacteria (Perduca, 2016). Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are unique aquatic microaerophiles that can align and move in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field. In this paper, the basic physical properties of magnetosomes, some mechanisms, such as magnetotaxis, and phototaxis, involved in the MTB’s motion, and the role…

Read More »

Physical Principles Governing the Movement of Dinoflagellates and The Implications for Their Interactions in Aquatic Ecosystems

Dinoflagellates are unicellular eukaryotic cells. There are around 2400 known species of dinoflagellates. This phylum is very diverse; among different species, we observe several unique characteristics of behavior and morphology. All dinoflagellates, however, have two flagella. These flagella allow them to swim in a unique and interesting manner. A dinoflagellate…

Read More »

Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

Read More »

Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

Read More »

Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

Read More »

The Physical Properties and Interactions of Coccolithophores

Coccolithophores are one of the world’s most important calcifying organisms. Populating the greater light-intensive areas of the ocean, these unicellular haptophytes are more broadly classified as photosynthetic phytoplankton. These organisms’ anatomy, physiology, and various processes make them irreplaceable contributors to the world’s carbon cycle. They are responsible for modifying upper-ocean…

Read More »

Aquatic Fungi: An Exploration of Adaptations in Chemical Processes

This article explores the chemistry behind the diverse functions and characteristics of aquatic fungi, a fascinating group of microorganisms that inhabit freshwater and marine ecosystems. Aquatic fungi play an important role in the cycling of nutrients and the decomposition of organic matter. This article gives an overview elucidating the key…

Read More »